Instructional Focus Document Notes
Grade 8/Social Studies
UNIT: 06 TITLE: Early Republic
Part 1: The New Nation
The New Nation
- The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution in December of 1791.
- George Washington was elected the first President of the United States of America.
- Washington as the first President would be responsible for establishing many precedents.
- He established the first Presidential Cabinet (administration) with heads of executive departments.
- He also oversaw the establishment of the Court System with the passing of the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789.
- Under the new Constitution, the Authority of the National Government needed to be established and defined
Hamilton and the Bank
- Washington appointed Alexander Hamilton to head the new Treasury Department.
- The United States needed to create a stable economic system
- Hamilton wanted to install a National Bank.
- He was also in favor of implementing protective Tariffs and quickly repaying our Revolutionary War debt.
- Thomas Jefferson and the other Anti-federalists argued that a National Bank would be unconstitutional.
- Hamilton pointed to the “Necessary and Proper clause” in the Constitution
The Elastic Clause
- The “Necessary and Proper Clause” in the constitution gives the government the power to… “Make all laws which are necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all together powers vested by this Constitution”….
- This clause became known as the “elastic clause”, because it could be stretched to fit any meaning.
- Both Hamilton and Jefferson used the clause in their arguments.
- In the end, Washington sided with Hamilton and the National Bank was established, becoming very successful.
- Alexander Hamilton played a vital role in the early economic system of the United States.
- He advocated (supported) a “Free Enterprise” system with minimal government intrusion. In other words, allow businesses to help build the nations economy without fear of the government taxing them heavily making regulations and limiting what they can do.
Federalists vs. Anti-federalists
- The first two political parties in the United States formed because of the disagreements over the role and strength the new Federal government would have.
- Federalists and Anti-federalists also disagreed about the future direction of the United States.
- Federalists such as Alexander Hamilton and John Adams wanted the United States to become a leader in research and technology to become an industrial giant.
- Anti-federalists such as Thomas Jefferson and George Mason wanted the United States to remain an agrarian society. (farmers)
- Federalists also favored protective tariffs. These are taxes placed on imported goods that help protect American manufactured products by making foreign made products more expensive.
- Taxes allow the government to create more programs and infrastructure that benefit the economy and the citizens.
- Anti-Federalists wanted an expansion of States’ Rights
- Federalists wanted a loose interpretation of the Constitution while,..
- Anti-Federalists wanted a strict interpretation.
- In Europe, England and France were still at war with each other.
- Many American merchant ships were being seized by both nations.
- England had also not fully removed themselves from American soil as laid out in the Treaty of Paris 1783.
- Washington sent John Jay back to Europe to negotiate another treaty with the British, so that England would recognize American neutrality and leave American shipping alone.
- Jay was only successful in getting England to: ) abandon their forts in the western U.S. and b.) allow American merchant ships to trade in Asia.
- England still refused to accept American neutrality and continued to seize American ships.
- American merchants were also shut out of the West Indies
- Many Americans felt this new treaty was an insult and were angry
- But Washington signed the treaty, anyway, because he knew the United States could not fight another war with Britain.
Washington’s Farewell Address
- Washington served two terms as President before he stepped down from office.
- By the end of his presidency the two dominant political parties were the Federalists and Anti-federalists.
- The Anti-federalists had now changed their name to the Democratic-Republicans.
- In his farewell address, Washington urged America to stay neutral in foreign affairs.
- He also stressed unity among ALL Americans regardless of their home state.
A New Capital
- Designs for a new capital city were planned on the banks of the Potomac River.
- Pierre Charles L’enfant was commissioned to design the new Capital city
- Construction on the White House began in 1793.
- Construction on the Capitol building itself began a year later.
- Philadelphia would serve as the Nation’s Capital until Washington C. was finished.
Hamilton and Jefferson
- Disagreed on many things including the war between England and France.
- Hamilton supported England.
- Jefferson admired the French since the French were going through their own democratic revolution
- They both supported rival newspapers and used these papers to attack each others credentials.
- Hamilton could never be President because he was not native born.
- James Madison had been a leading Federalist, but he changed his views and became a Democratic-Republican.
- Federalists controlled Congress during Washington’s and Adams’ Presidency.
- Farmers started a revolt over a stiff tax on grain used to make alcohol
- Washington with Hamilton by his side, rode out to put down this uprising.
- John Adams was elected the 2nd President of the United States.
- Adams was attacked continuously by the Democratic-Republican party.
- Hamilton did not like Jefferson or even Adams for that matter and he urged Thomas Pickney to run for President. (Hamilton would be pulling the strings in that Presidency)
- When voters caught wind of Hamilton’s scheme, the voted for Jefferson.
- John Adams barely won the Presidency to become the second President of the United States.
- Thomas Jefferson became the Vice President.
French Revolution and the XYZ Affair
- France had fallen into a terrible and bloody revolution.
- Chaos and anarchy reigned in France even though they managed to still maintain a war with England
- After years of chaos and the “reign of terror” the French Revolution gradually calmed down when a young general from the army took control of the country
- He was Napoleon Bonaparte.
- Jay’s Treaty had made the French furious so the French began seizing American ships.
- President Adams sent Charles Pinckney Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to France to meet with the French foreign minister Talleyrand
- Talleyrand wanted an apology from John Adams over some insulting remarks he had made.
- He also wanted a “gift” from the American people in the amount of $250,000.
- The American delegates exploded at this demand. Pinckney said “Not a sixpence!”
- The Americans left France and published their letters of the incident. The names of Talleyrand and the agents were changed to X, Y, and Z.
- The American public became outraged at the “bribe”
- Americans wanted a war with France
- Congress even began to raise money for war.
- President Adams was smart. He knew that Emperor Napoleon of France could destroy the young United States.
- Napoleon was a military genius who had already conquered much of Europe.
- Instead the Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Alien and Sedition Acts
- These laws attacked foreigners who were living in the United States. (Namely the French)
- The laws stated that the government could arrest anyone who was a threat to national security.
- The laws also outlawed open criticism of the President.
- This violated the 1st Amendment.
- The Democratic-Republicans used this to their advantage and labeled John Adams and all Federalists as tyrants.
- John Adams did not win his re-election bid and Thomas Jefferson became the 3rd President
- The Alien & Sedition Acts had ruined Adams
- Jefferson had suggested earlier that states should have the right to dismiss or “nullify” laws passed by the federal government if that law was not beneficial to the state.
- This notion was quickly repealed because the act of nullification would destroy the power of the federal government.
- Jefferson began military cutbacks even though the United States did go to war in the Mediterranean Sea against the Barbary Pirates.
- The Barbary Pirates had for years attacked any trade ships that sailed in the Mediterranean.
- They demanded that countries pay a tribute so their ships would be left alone.
- The United States refused to pay tribute and when the pirates attacked S. ships, the United States went to war with the pirates.
- After several years, the pirates left American ships alone.
- After Napoleon had conquered Spain, he took back the Louisiana Territory.
- He also landed 20,000 French troops to re-take the island of Dominique (Haiti), that was overthrown by Toussaint L’Overture
- The French took half the island before succumbing to yellow fever.
- Napoleon needed money to finance his wars as he tried to conquer all of Europe and the world
- Jefferson sent Robert Livingston to France to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for 10 million dollars. Talleyrand offered Livingston the entire Louisiana region for 15 million.
- Livingston accepted the offer.
- In 1803, The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States.
- The addition of the Louisiana territory was a great success in Jefferson’s presidency.
Lewis & Clark
- Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the region with the Corps of Discovery.
- Their journey would cover the northern region of the Louisiana
- Lewis and Clark brought a Canadian fur trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau as a guide. His Native American wife Sacajawea was invaluable as a guide and interpreter.
- Their assignment was to explore the area and report back their findings.
- They traveled all the way to the Pacific Ocean and encountered plants and animals that had never been seen before by Americans.
- They kept detailed journals of the land and people they encountered.
- They reported the area as being : “A howling wilderness, unsuitable for human habitation
- While Lewis and Clark were exploring the northern region of the Louisiana territory, Zebulon Pike led an expedition to explore the southern portion of the Louisiana
Part 2: The War of 1812
- Thomas Jefferson was a very popular President.
- While he was in office, the Federalist Party began to fade out.
- The Democratic Republicans were the dominant party
- Alexander Hamilton continued to slander the Democratic - Republican Party.
- He targeted President Jefferson, and especially Jefferson’s Vice President, Aaron Burr.
- Aaron Burr finally challenged Hamilton to a duel because of the insults.
- Hamilton accepted his duel and was killed in the duel
- Burr’s political career was ruined by this action.
The Embargo Act
- American merchant ships continued to be the victims of the ongoing war between England and France.
- To avoid spending money to protect American shipping, Jefferson installed the Embargo Act.
- The Act was designed to prevent cargo from being seized as well as prevent the impressments of American sailors by the British.
- The United States cut off trade with all the European powers.
- Both imports and exports fell.
- Impressments was the action of boarding American ships and kidnapping American sailors to force them into service in the British navy
- The Embargo Act was a disaster and the United States lost money.
- Jefferson decided not to run for a third term.
- James Madison became the 4th President of the United States.
Tensions between England and the U.S.
- Tensions between the United States and England along with France were growing because of the interference with American shipping and the British policy of impressments.
- Britain also still refused to recognize American neutrality.
- The United States began boycotting trade with Britain
- Meanwhile, Americans living on the frontier blamed England for stirring up trouble between settlers and Native Americans
- Tecumseh and his brother known as “the prophet” started a revolt
The War Hawks
- Henry Clay of Kentucky had formed the radical frontier group known as the “war hawks”.
- The War hawks blamed England for the troubles and pressed for the United States to go to war.
- The War Hawks continued to pressure congress for action against England.
- Though, the United States was in no way ready for another war with Britain, the Americans knew that Britain was occupied with the conquests of Napoleon.
- The few Federalists left in congress were opposed to any war with England, which caused the party to completely die out.
War of 1812
- England really had no quarrel with the United States.
- At the beginning of the war, the Americans made an unsuccessful attempt to invade British held Canada.
- The British then came down from Canada and took over Detroit, claiming the entire frontier area of the Great Lakes as part of the British Empire.
Battle of Put –in- Bay
- Americans needed to gain control of Lake Erie.
- Oliver Perry commanded the American fleet that engaged the British. He quoted “We have met the enemy, and they are ours!”
War on the Frontier
- British relied heavily on Native American allies to handle the war with the Americans on the Frontier.
- The Creeks had formed the powerful Red-Stick confederacy.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
- General Andrew Jackson and his militia known as the Tennessee Volunteers defeated the Creek Red Stick confederacy at the battle of Horseshoe Bend.
Battle of Tippecanoe
- General William Henry Harrison destroyed the Native American confederation led by the war chief Tecumseh and his brother “the prophet” at the battle of Tippecanoe.
War on the Frontier
- Generals Andrew Jackson and William Harrison became American heroes for securing the frontier during the war and crushing Native American resistance.
Destruction of Washington D.C.
- The British landed an invasion force in the United States.
- The British under the command of General Robert Ross, marched on to Washington C. meeting little resistance.
- President Madison was forced to evacuate as the British invasion entered the Capital.
- The British defeated the American army defending Washington C. and then set fire to the city.
- First Lady Dolly Madison was able to save many important paintings and documents from the White House as it burned along with the rest of Washington C.
- McHenry guarded the city of Baltimore.
- The British laid siege to the fort with their ships and began to bombard the fort.
- Francis Scott Key was on board a prison ship and witnessed this battle. It inspired the “Star Spangled Banner”
Battle of New Orleans
- The British made an attempt to take the city of New Orleans, and thus control the Ms. River.
- Andrew Jackson and his Volunteers rushed to defend the city from the British attack
- After the first attack ended in a draw, the British advanced a second time and were decimated by the Americans.
- Over 2,000 British soldiers were killed compared to 71 Americans.
- The irony surrounding this battle was that it occurred nearly two weeks after peace had been declared.
- Despite this, the overwhelming American victory made Andrew Jackson a national hero.
Treaty of Ghent
- Napoleon was gone. The Americans and British really had no cause to continue fighting each other
- Peace was restored, but no promises were made, no land exchanged, and neither side won its intended goals.
- The United States established itself as an independent and powerful nation capable of defending itself.
Part 3: The Monroe Doctrine
- James Monroe was elected President in 1816.
- Monroe was a Democratic-Republican from Virginia
- Monroe wanted to create a sense of National unity.
New Nations in the Americas
- Spanish Colonies in the Western Hemisphere were wanting their independence from Spain.
- Latin America refers to the Western Hemisphere regions where Latin based languages are spoken. (Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese)
Revolution in Latin America
- In 1816 Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador won their Independence
- In 1819, the Republic of Great Colombia won its independence from Spain. The new republic included the present day nations of Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama
- In 1821, the people of Central America declared their independence from Spain. The new nations included Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala
- In 1821, Mexico also wins its independence from Spain
- The Portuguese colony of Brazil won its independence peacefully
- By 1825, Spain had lost all of its colonies in the Western Hemisphere except for Cuba and Puerto Rico
- Many Americans wanted to gain possession of Florida because of the disturbances across the border
- Creek and Seminole Indians raided settlements in Georgia
- Florida was also a refuge for runaway slaves
- Seminoles had allowed African Americans to live near their villages in exchange for crops.
- Black Seminoles adopted many Indian customs
- In 1818, Andrew Jackson had invaded Florida with 3,000 soldiers to capture Seminole and Creek outposts as well as runaway slaves.
- Spain did not resist because it was busy fighting wars in Latin America
- In the end, Spain agreed to peace talks
- President Monroe sent Secretary of State John Quincy Adams to negotiate a treaty with Spain
- Spain agreed to give Florida to the United States for 5 million dollars
- The Adams-Onis Treaty was signed in 1819, and took full effect in 1821
United States and Latin America
- Americans were happy for the Latin American countries who had gained their independence
- However, Secretary of State Adams and President Monroe were concerned about European response.
- European countries like Prussia, France, Spain, and Austria seemed ready to try and take back some of the colonies that Spain had lost.
- Russia was also in the mix claiming lands on the Pacific coast of North America.
The Monroe Doctrine
- The British, also concerned wanted to issue a joint statement with the United States, but President Monroe acted on his own.
- The President issued the Monroe Doctrine
- The Monroe Doctrine declared that the United States would not interfere in the affairs of European nations, or existing colonies of Europe.
- At the Same time it warns that the United States will not tolerate any further colonization by Europe in the Western Hemisphere, and the United States would resist any nation attempting to interfere in the affairs of nations in the Western Hemisphere.
- It also warns against any attempt to regain lost colonies
- The message of the Monroe Doctrine showed that the United States was determined to keep European powers out of the Western Hemisphere
- In the early years of the Monroe Doctrine, the United States did not have the military strength to back up the doctrine, but Great Britain who had supported the doctrine helped enforce it with their superior navy.
- As the United States became stronger over the years, it could back up the Monroe Doctrine on its own.
- On several occasions the United States successfully backed up the Doctrine against European challengers
- The Monroe Doctrine shaped American foreign policy for more than 100 years
The Policies of Washington and Monroe
- The policies of both these Presidents shaped the role the United States would play in the world.
- Washington had urged the nation to be neutral and steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world
- Washington also recognized the dangers of political parties attacking one another and warned that such attacks could weaken the nation
- His advice still guides S. foreign policy.
- President Monroe prevented other nations from colonizing the western hemisphere.
- Oversaw the rise of the United States as a world power and protector.
Instructional Focus Document Notes
Grade 8/Social Studies
UNIT: 07 TITLE: Age of Jackson
Part 1: Jackson Democracy
A New Era in Politics
- The spirit of Democracy which was changing the political system affected Americans’ ideas about social classes.
- Most Americans believed that the rich did not deserve special treatment, or respect.
- Alexis de Tocqueville was sent to the United States from France to study and write about American democracy.
Alexis de Tocqueville
- He observed that American society continued to become more democratic.
- After returning to France his book: Democracy in America influenced many minds across Europe.
- In his book he noted and admired the American democratic spirit and its goals of equality and freedom.
- He noted the results of the revolution was still taking place in America and were far from coming to an end
- The United States was growing rapidly with many more states joining the Union, which meant more voters
- Suffrage (the right to vote) was extended to more Americans.
- Reformers in the East worked to expand suffrage, and by 1830 most Eastern states dropped the requirement that voters had to own land to vote.
- There were still many Americans who did not have the right to vote including: Women, Native Americans, Slaves, and Free African Americans.
Disputed Election of 1824
- There were four candidates in the Presidential election of 1824.
- All four were members of the Democratic-Republican party.
- John Quincy Adams (son of former President John Adams) was strong in New England
- Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson were supported in the West.
- William Crawford was supported in the South.
The Corrupt Bargain
- The candidates narrowed to John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson
- No clear winner emerged in the election
- Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, but did not have the majority of electoral votes needed to win the election.
- As a result, the House of Representatives had to choose the next President. (as stipulated in the Constitution.)
- Henry Clay was Speaker of the House and could therefore influence votes.
- Clay urged the House to vote for Adams and Adams won the election.
- Clay was then appointed Secretary of State by Adams
- Andrew Jackson and his supporters were furious.
- They accused Clay and Adams of making a corrupt bargain and stealing the election from Andrew Jackson
- These charges were not true, but the anger of Jackson and his supporters hampered any attempt by President Adams to unify the nation.
Election of 1828
- Adams faced an uphill battle for his re-election.
- Andrew Jackson won this election in a landslide.
- For the first time, the interests of the common man were important.
- Andrew Jackson’s inauguration in 1829 reflected the growing spirit of democracy.
- The spread of political power to all the people became known as “Jacksonian Democracy.”
The Democrat Party Begins
- The disappearance of the Federalist party temporarily ended party differences.
- New political parties formed because of the conflict between Adams and Jackson.
- Whigs were the new political party that wanted the federal government to spur (push forward) the American economy
- Whigs were supported by eastern business, southern planters, and former federalists. Whigs did not like nor support Andrew Jackson.
- Democrats were people who supported Andrew Jackson.
- Democrats included frontier farmers, factory workers, commoners,
New ways to choose Candidates
- There were new ways to choose candidates to run for the Presidency.
- Before was the Caucus system. This was considered undemocratic because only a few powerful men selected the candidates.
- Nominating Conventions replaced Caucuses. Delegates from each state voted for the candidates who would run for the Presidency.
- Jackson was a self made man
- Fought in the American Revolution at age 13
- Studied law in North Carolina and opened successful law practice in Tennessee
- Elected to Congress while in his twenties.
- Became wealthy by buying and selling land in Georgia and Alabama
- Won national fame for his achievements in the War of 1812 (especially the Battle of New Orleans)
- Jackson had a violent temper and dealt harshly with his enemies
- He wanted to expand the power of the President.
- The Creeks thought of Jackson as an enemy without mercy. They called him the “Sharp Knife”
- After winning the election, Jackson fired many government employees and replaced them with his supporters
- Andrew Jackson had many unique policies , and strategies (plans)
- Critics claimed that Jackson was rewarding Democrats for getting him elected
- Jackson countered by saying he was supporting democracy by allowing ordinary people to run the government.
- The Spoils System can be defined as profits or benefits.
- From then on rewarding supporters with government jobs became known as the Spoils System
The “Kitchen Cabinet”
- Because many of the supporters Jackson gave government jobs to were not qualified, Jackson rarely met with them
- Instead he met with his unofficial cabinet of leading Democrats and educated newspaper editors
- Because they would meet after hours in the White House Kitchen, they earned the nickname, “Kitchen Cabinet”
The Bank Wars
- The National Bank held great power, because it controlled all the loans made by state banks. If state banks made too many loans, the National Bank would step in and limit the amount of loans they could make.
- This angered farmers and merchants who needed these loans for land and businesses.
- Though the National Bank was created by Congress, Jackson claimed that the bank was unconstitutional.
- The Whig Party (Daniel Webster and Henry Clay) were worried that Jackson would destroy the National Bank.
- They wanted Jackson to lose his re-election, so they moved up the date of the Bank charter renewal knowing that Jackson would veto the renewal.
- They thought that if the renewal was vetoed, then the closing of the Bank would lead to an economic crisis and Jackson would be blamed.
- He would then lose the election.
- Jackson DID veto the National Bank’s renewal charter giving two reasons:
- He said the bank helped the aristocrats at the expense of the common man. It had too much power over the economy and favored the wealthy.
- The National bank was unconstitutional and that only state banks could charter banks and loans, not the Federal government.
- The National Bank closed when its charter ran out in 1836.
- Its closing contributed to an economic crisis.
- Andrew Jackson was beginning to gather more and more political enemies who were becoming alarmed at the power he was wielding as President.
- This is the right of individual states to limit the power of the Federal government within their borders.
- During Andrew Jackson’s presidency, the debate over States Rights affected two issues
- The tariff issue
- The rights of Native Americans to lands they had been guaranteed in Federal treaties
Tariff of 1828
- In 1828, Congress passed the highest tariff in the history of the United States.
- Tariffs were intended to protect the northern industries from competing industries in Europe.
- Tariffs usually impacted the South negatively.
- The South called the Tariff of 1828 the “Tariff of Abominations.”
- The South sold their cotton to European nations at discounted prices. In return, European nations provided the South with manufactured goods at low cost.
- The tariffs only helped (protected) the North.
- Tariffs were designed to create a demand for American manufactured goods.
Calhoun vs. Webster
- John C. Calhoun (Andrew Jackson’s Vice President) claimed that a state should have the right to nullify a law it considered unconstitutional.
- Calhoun supported States Rights
- Daniel Webster disagreed with Calhoun.
- Webster said the Constitution united the people…not the states
- Webster and Calhoun became bitter opponents in Congress
- Calhoun resigned from the office of the Vice President after getting little support from President Andrew Jackson. (Jackson replaced him with Martin Van Buren)
- Calhoun then was elected to the Senate for South Carolina.
- Congress passed a lower tariff, but South Carolina was still not satisfied.
- South Carolina passed the Nullification Act which stated that it had the right to reject any law passed by Congress.
- South Carolina saw Nullification as a States’ Rights issue.
- South Carolina declared the Tariff of 1828 illegal and even threatened to secede if challenged
- Andrew Jackson was furious and asked Congress to pass the force bill which would allow him to use the military to enforce the tariff in South Carolina.
- Jackson also asked Congress to pass a compromise tariff (composed by Henry Clay)
- Faced with Jackson’s firm stand, South Carolina backed down and repealed the Nullification Act.
- Henry Clay was now able to work with John C. Calhoun to lower the tariff on Southern States with the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
- Though the crisis passed, tension between the North and South would continue to grow through the years
Impact of Slavery on different Section of the United States
- In the North, Slavery had been illegal since the Revolution
- In 1807, Congress banned the importation of slaves into the United States from Africa. Though, the practice of slavery was still legal in the South.
- There were some abolitionist societies that wanted to get rid of slavery everywhere in the S. but many were ambivalent to the plight of slaves
- In the South, slaves were seen as property, not people and vital for the labor required to maintain the cash crops
- The South saw the issue of slavery as a States’ Rights issue.
- The South was becoming more and more economically dependent on slavery and acted to silence criticism .
- The West was becoming involved due to the extension of slavery into the new western territories.
Supreme Court and States Rights
- Two landmark Supreme Court decisions also dealt with the issue of States v. the Federal Government
- McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) came to the U.S. Supreme Court because Maryland wanted to tax the National Bank’s branch within its borders. The Supreme courts decision was that a state can not have authority over a federal institution. The Federal Governments authority over State Governments was upheld
- Gibbons v. Ogden came to the U.S. Supreme Court because steamship operators fought over shipping rights on the Hudson River in both New York and New Jersey. The Supreme Court’s ruling was that ONLY the Federal Government had the power to regulate interstate commerce. The Federal Governments power was reinforced
- The Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole lived in peace with the white Americans in the southeast.
- Their land, however , was ideal for growing cotton, and settlers wanted this land.
- Jackson sided with the settlers and urged Congress to set aside new land for the Native American tribes west of the Mississippi River, and force them into that land.
- Few Native Americans wanted to move
- The Cherokee had adopted many American customs
- They decided to take their battle to the courts
Worcester v. Georgia
- Georgia claimed the right to force out the Cherokee.
- The Cherokee pointed to the many federal treaties they had which superseded any state law.
- The case went all the way to the Supreme Court.
- Chief Justice John Marshall declared Georgia’s actions to be unconstitutional and stated that the Native Americans were protected by the federal treaties
- Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the Supreme Court’s decision and sided with Georgia claiming that the federal government could not prevent Georgia from taking Cherokee lands.
- The Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced many Native American tribes west of the Mississippi River. (Oklahoma)
- In the Indian Removal Act, Congress was trying to avoid conflict between cotton farmers and Indians, but it also confiscated Indian land for the purpose of cotton farming.
- The Indian Removal Act was also intended to protect Indian government and culture.
- In 1838, the S. army forced more than 15,000 Cherokees westward into Oklahoma.
- Many perished on the march because of a lack of supplies. Most were the elderly and children
- The Cherokees migration was a long and sorrowful journey which became known as “The Trail of Tears”
- In Florida, the Seminole tribe refused to go west and fought back. These became the Seminole Wars, one of the costliest wars waged by the federal government to obtain Indian land.
- In the end, the Seminoles were defeated and they too were forced west.
Martin Van Buren
- Andrew Jackson stepped down after his second term
- Martin Van Buren became the next President of the United States
Panic of 1837
- Martin Van Buren faced a terrible economic crisis, because the National Bank had been closed.
- The Panic of 1837 started because western land was being sold to speculators who bought up cheap land in the hope of selling it at a huge profit.
- They were buying this land with borrowed money from state banks.
- The National Bank was no longer there to regulate the amount of money being loaned out.
- State banks began to just print up more money to meet the demand.
- Before leaving office, Jackson tried to slow down this splurge in loans by issuing an order that land could only be bought with gold or silver.
- Speculators and everyone else then began to try cashing in their paper currency for gold or silver.
- The banks did not have the gold or silver to back up the paper money.
- Many banks were forced to close
- The Panic worsened as cotton prices in the south plummeted. Cotton farmers now couldn’t repay loans and more banks closed.
- The nation plunged into an economic depression.
- A depression is a period where business declines, unemployment rises, and the economy struggles.
- This depression lasted 3 years
Campaign of 1840
- Martin Van Buren faced a battle when he ran for re-election.
- The Whig Party had chosen William Henry Harrison to run against the Democrat.
- Harrison was popular from the War of 1812.
- The Whigs spread word and propaganda all over in their attempt to unseat the Democrats.
- This became a mudslinging campaign.
William Henry Harrison
- The Whigs were excited when Harrison won the Presidency. They planned to reinstate the National Bank, bring back higher tariffs, improve roads, etc.
- They were devastated when Harrison died of pneumonia two weeks later
- John Tyler succeeded Harrison as President
- Tyler (an ex-Democrat) vetoed the National Bank bill.
- In response, the Whigs threw Tyler out of the party, so he could not run for re-election.
Instructional Focus Document Notes
Grade 8/Social Studies
UNIT: 08 TITLE: Manifest Destiny
Part 1: New Land and the Northwest Ordinance
- Since the End of the American Revolution, the United States had been acquiring new land.
- Congress needed to come up with a system for organizing all the new land that the United States had acquired from the Treaty of Paris 1783.
- The Land Ordinance of 1785- divided the land into six mile square plots. These were called townships and the area became known as the Northwest Territory.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- This determined how the Northwest Territory would be governed.
- When the population reached 60,000, the territory could apply to become a state.
- Slavery in the Northwest Territory would be outlawed
- Rivers for navigation would be open for all.
- Freedom of religion and trial by jury.
- The Northwest Ordinance set a pattern for orderly growth that the United States continued to use throughout the years. It provided procedures for establishing territories and creating states. As the nation grew, it used the same principles.
Part 2: Westward Expansion
Lure of Oregon
- By the 1820s white settlers had occupied much of the land east of the Mississippi River.
- The plains were considered too dry, so farmers and settlers began heading to the far west
- Americans knew about the enormous territory of Oregon west of the Rocky Mountains
- The region included the present day areas of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana, and parts of Canada
- The Geography of Oregon is varied. Along the Pacific coast, the soil is fertile. Temperatures are mild year round and rainfall is plentiful. Settlers found fine farmland.
- Farther inland, dense forests are found. Mountain men and fur trappers found plenty of game and fur bearing animals.
- The Mountain Men and hunters were the first whites in the area.
Claims to Oregon
- In the early 1800s, four countries claimed Oregon: Russia, Spain, Britain, and the United States.
- In 1818, the S. and Britain agree to jointly occupy Oregon
- As Oregon fever spread, pioneers clogged the trails west.
- Many traveled on the Oregon Trail
- Beginning in 1843, wagon trains left every spring for Oregon. Families planning to go west would meet at Independence Missouri.
- They had to leave by early May
- Timing was important. They needed to be in Oregon before the heavy snowfalls in the mountains.
- All the trails west faced the hazard of crossing the mountains
- This meant that they had to cover 2,000 miles in 5 months. In the 1840s, traveling 15 miles a day was making good time
- Between 1840 and 1860 more than 50,000 people had reached Oregon
Americans in Texas
- Spain had given Moses Austin a land grant in order to bring settlers into Texas.
- After his death, his son, Stephen F. Austin took over the land grant
- Mexico had won its Independence from Spain, so Stephen Austin had to deal with the new Mexican government.
- Mexico wanted the settlers to develop the land and handle the Native Americans on the frontier
- Starting in 1821, Austin brought in 300 families known as “The Old Three Hundred”
- Many of the Old 300 came from the South and started cotton plantations in Texas
- Many had brought the institution of slavery with them
- By 1830, about 20,000 Americans lived in Texas
Conflict between Texans and the Mexican Government
- In 1830, Mexico barred American immigration
- Mexico began to enforce laws that had previously been ignored
- One law required all Texans to be Catholic
- Another law banned slavery in Texas
- Then Santa Anna threw out the Constitution of 1824
Texans Take Action
- These laws angered the Texans and when the Mexican government sent in troops to enforce the laws, tension between the Mexican government and the Texans increased
- With Santa Anna in power in Mexico, Americans living in Texas felt it was time to take action
Four Major Occurrences in the Texas Revolution
- Battle of the Gonzales
- The Alamo
- The decisive battle at San Jacinto
- Texas became an independent country in September of 1836
- Sam Houston became the Republic’s first President and the Texas Constitution closely resembled the American Constitution
- The new Republic faced many problems
- The Mexican government till refused to recognize the treaty that Santa Anna signed
- Mexicans still believed Texas was a part of Mexico
- Texas was nearly bankrupt
- Comanche and other Indian tribes threatened small Texas communities
- Many people believed that the best way to solve Texas’s problems would be annexation by the United States
- The annexation of Texas became the argument between the North and South with slavery being the main issue
- Northerners were opposed to the idea, but Southerners were in favor of annexation
- Northerners feared that Texas would be admitted into the Union as a slave state
- There were also concerns that annexation of Texas could lead to conflict with Mexico
- Because of the controversy, Congress refused to annex Texas.
- For the next 9 years, Texas worked to get immigrants from the United States to come to Texas. They even offered free land
- During the Panic of 1837, thousands of Americans moved to Texas.
- Immigrants from Germany and Switzerland also moved to Texas
- By 1840, about 140,000 people lived in Texas. Most were American
New Mexico Territory
- In the Early 1840s, most of the Southwest was known as the New Mexico Territory.
- This included present day Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado
- In the mid-1840s, only about 700 people lived in California.
- Every year, however, more and more Americans began moving west.
- On several occasions the American government offered to buy California from the Mexican government.
- The United States was eager to get control of the Pacific ports of San Francisco and San Diego
- There were other reasons for wanting to obtain California
- President James K. Polk believed that the California territory would produce great riches
- Many Americans felt that since the American culture was superior to others and that democracy was the best form of government, then it was the duty of the United States to spread its culture and democracy across the entire continent of North America all the way to the Pacific Ocean
- This belief was called Manifest Destiny
- Manifest means clear or obvious
- Destiny means something that is sure to happen
- Manifest Destiny did have a negative side
- Many Americans used the belief to justify taking land from cultures whom they considered inferior to the American culture (Mexican and Native American)
- Many settlers moved west to start a new life
- The United States finally annexed Texas
- This enraged Mexico and now the Mexicans became worried about California
- Many Americans felt that Mexico’s refusal to sell California stood in the way of Manifest Destiny
- A border dispute between the United States and Mexico between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande erupted when Mexican soldiers crossed the Rio Grande and clashed with American soldiers.
- The President of the United States at the time James Polk urged Congress to declare war on Mexico
- Congress did declare war
- Many Americans did not approve of this war. They thought it was a plot to gain more slave states
- The famous writer Henry David Thoreau refused to pay his taxes as a protest to the war
- For this act of Civil Disobedience, we was arrested and put in jail
- Still many more Americans supported the war. (mostly from the South)
- General Taylor and General Winfield Scott attacked Mexico from many fronts.
- A third Army led by Stephen Kearny, captured much of New Mexico and southern California
- John C. Fremont led a revolt in California and overthrew the Mexican officials there
- Soon after, General Winfield Scott captured Mexico City bringing an end to the War.
- In the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico had to cede all of California and the New Mexico Territory to the United States. This was the Mexican Cession.
- The United States agreed to pay 15 million for the land. A few years later, the United States needed to purchase land again from Mexico for a railroad. This was the Gadsden Purchase which filled in the present day borders of the continental United States. The Gadsden purchase provided a safer southern route to the west.
- Most territorial expansion occurred in the early 19th century and it was all west of the Mississippi River
Mormons and Westward Expansion
- Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830, the Mormon churched faced much persecution from their neighbors forcing them to relocate from New York to Ohio, then again to Missouri, and again to Illinois.
- After an angry mob killed founding member Joseph Smith, the new Mormon leader Brigham Young decided that the group should move far out to the newly acquired Mexican Cession territories
The Mormon Trail
- For years many Mormons moved out to Utah where the Mormons settled.
- The Mormons created a trail that others including non-Mormons would use in their journeys out west.
California Gold Rush
- In 1848, John Sutter discovered gold at his sawmill.
- He tried to keep it secret, but word eventually leaked out and soon hundreds of Californians rushed to Sutter’s Mill to find gold.
- “Gold Fever” soon gripped the nation. Thousands of people flocked to California with dreams of striking it rich . More than 80,000 people made the long journey to California in 1849.
- They became known as the forty-niners
- California’s population exploded almost overnight.
- Small camps grew quickly into thriving cities
- Because of the greed for gold, many people turned to robbery and crime. Lawlessness soon became the way of the wild west.
- As crime grew, people turned to vigilantism to combat the violence and crime.
- People from all over the world came to California as the news spread.
- A great number of Asian immigrants came to California
- Chinese immigrants arrived for the first time in California with dreams of finding gold.
- Instead they were run out of the mines by other miners
- Many Chinese immigrants resorted to building railroads and other laborious tasks
- African Americans who came out west also faced discrimination
- Native Americans suffered the worst as they were pushed out of their lands.
Instructional Focus Document Notes
Grade 8/Social Studies
UNIT: 09 TITLE: Industrialism: North and South Economies
Part 1: Industrial Revolution
- Gradual process by which machines replaced hand tools and steam and other power replaced human and animal power
- Changed the world from a society of farmers to a society of manufacturers
- During the War of 1812 manufactured goods from Europe stopped coming into the United States due to naval blockades by Britain.
- The United States had to become industrially independent from Europe.
- The United States economic policy of Free Enterprise helped to fuel the Industrial Revolution.
- Free Enterprise had replaced the old British colonial system of Mercantilism.
- With Free Enterprise, Americans had the right to choose trade partners, prices, and products.
- This was economic freedom as granted in the U.S. Constitution.
- The U.S. Government has very little involvement in a Free Enterprise system
- Free enterprise created LESS dependence of foreign products
- Laissez – faire (French for “Hands off”) is a belief of American business that the government should have very little involvement in businesses.
- Laissez – faire was advocated (supported) by one of the leading founders of modern economics, Adam Smith
- The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the mid 1700’s
- British inventors developed new machines that transform the textile industry.
- James Hargreaves developed the Spinning Jenny that could spin several threads at once
- In the 1780’s, Edmund Cartwright built a loom powered by water.
- It allowed a worker to produce a great deal more cloth in a day than was ever possible before
- Before the factory system, most spinning and weaving took place at home.
- Large machines had to be house in large mills (factories).
- At first most mills were located next to rivers for power
- Rivers powered the water wheels which turned shafts inside the mill which in turn powered the machines that the shafts were connected to.
- The factory system brought workers and machinery together in one place to produce goods
- To set up a mill (factory) required large amounts of Capital (money)
- Capitalists supplied the money.
- Investment capital was the most important factor to consider before a business could be started.
- The first American mill was built in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
- In the United States, Factories were built in the North.
- The Northern States’ economies were based on factories and manufacturing.
- The Southern States’ economies remained based on agriculture. (Plantations and cash crops)
The Cotton Gin
- Eli Whitney had invented the cotton gin to clean cotton
- The cotton gin had rollers with thin wire teeth which would separate the cotton fibers from the seed
- Cotton became much easier to grow and harvest
- Cotton became the “king” cash crop in the South
- The cotton kingdom spread all across the Southern States
- Tragically this also caused the overwhelming spread of slavery
- Cyrus McCormack invented the McCormack Reaper. This mechanical reaper cut crops much faster and greatly increased farm productivity.
- Eli Whitney also invented interchangeable parts, which were identical machine made parts for tools or instruments.
- The idea of interchangeable parts spread rapidly. Investors designed machines to produce interchangeable parts for clocks, locks, and many other goods
- Francis Cabot Lowell combined spinning and weaving into one factory
- An entire town was built around the factory system Lowell had installed (Lowell, )
- To work in the mills the company hired young women
Industrialization and the lives of workers
- As the Factory System spread, more families left home to work in the factories. In the poorer families, women would go out and work while a wealthy woman’s husband could support the entire family.
- Having a wife who stayed home was a sign of success.
- Child Labor: Boys and girls as young as seven worked in the factories
- Long Hours: Workers worked a 12 hour day, six days a week.
- In the early 1800’s American mills were safer than British mills, but as competition grew, factory owners took less interest in the welfare of their workers.
- Factories provided jobs for many Americans, and they moved to where the factories were located. This led to cities springing up around the factories.
- Urbanization is the growth of cities. The movement of the population from farms to the cities. By 1850, 15% of the American population lived in the cities.
- Industrialism led to the growth of cities
- Growing cities had many problems such as overcrowding and poor sanitation.
- Under these conditions, disease spread easily. Epidemics of influenza and cholera raged through cities, killing hundreds.
- Cities had many attractions as well.
- Theatres, museums, circuses, etc. created an air of excitement.
- Shopping was very popular in the cities (ready made clothes, etc.)
- The growth of cities, the increase in jobs, and the United States’ open door policy on immigration led to a large number of immigrants from Europe during the 19th
- Most of these immigrants came from Ireland and the Germany
- The Irish came in the early part of the century and the Germans came in the latter half of the century.
- There were also improved developments in communication across the country. Samuel Morse invented the telegraph system in the United States which transmitted messages through a wire in a series of dots and dashes called “Morse Code”.
- This new way of communication sped up the exchange of information and helped to bring the new West closer to the East.
- The Bessemer Steel Process allowed for the oxidation and removal of impurities from metals making a much stronger steel and allowing for more steel construction.
- The Bessemer Steel process also led to the United States becoming a top producer of steel.
- All the technological innovations brought about rapid economic growth.
- Scientific discoveries and innovations of this period led to increased immigration and unfortunately in some cases (cotton gin), an expansion in slavery
Americans Move West
- Settlers began moving westward as early as the 1600’s
- By the mid 1800’s many Americans had migrated west. The original 13 colonies’ population had even declined from this migration
- Wagon trains were the method most travelers used when heading west
- Western routes had well traveled paths such as the Great Wagon Road that went across Pennsylvania.
- The Wilderness Road led through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky
- The National Road was the first road to be built by the federal government.
- It ran from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling in west Virginia, then on further west.
- Settlers used flatboats to travel down the Ohio River.
- Whenever possible, rivers would be used to transport goods to the market
- The Steam Engine had already been put into place in the factories, which made the machines far faster than ever before and allowed for goods to be produced much quicker.
- Steam power was the most responsible for the growth of industry
- A new invention for water transportation was the steamboat. Steamboats could travel upriver.
- Robert Fulton launched his first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807 on the Hudson River. It carried passengers from NYC to Albany and back (300 miles) in just 62 hours. A record at that time
- Fulton’s success ushered in the age of the Steamboat
- A canal is an artificial waterway that allows boats to cross stretches of land.
- Western farmers needed ways to get their goods to the markets back east.
- The Erie Canal linked the Great Lakes with the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers.
- Work on the Canal began in 1817 and was finished in 1825.
- The Erie Canal allowed western farmers to ship their goods to the port of New York, bringing businesses to towns along its route
- The Canal dropped the cost of shipping and helped make New York the center of commerce
- Commerce benefited from a means of faster transportation
- The steam engine also led to the rapid expansion of the railroad system in the United States.
- Railroads began to supply cities and towns with food, fuel, building materials, access to markets and greatly decreased the amount of travel time necessary to get goods and people from one region of the country to another.
- Railroads allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances.
- The Transcontinental Railroad, which was completed in 1869 created a nation wide transportation network in the United States that also united our nation.
- Railroads and canals allowed for faster movement of people and products
Era of Good Feelings
- This was an era that last approximately 8 years during the Presidency of James Monroe. (1817-1825) when the Democratic-Republicans dominated the nations politics
- After the War of 1812, the Industrial Revolution changed our country. Americans were proud of their growing country.
- Improved transportation allowed for the opening of new lands
- New industries were appearing
- In Congress, a new generation of political leaders sought to direct this expansion.
- James Monroe was elected President in 1816.
- Monroe was a Democratic-Republican from Virginia
- Monroe wanted to create a sense of National unity
Instructional Focus Document Notes
Grade 8/Social Studies
UNIT: 10 TITLE: Reform and Culture
Part 1: Reforms
- Many Irish who came to America after escaping the potato famine found themselves pushed into slums and working in low paying factory jobs or digging canals.
- German immigrants usually had enough money when they came to America.
- They settled in towns of the mid-west like Milwaukee, Louis, and Cincinnati
- There were German bakers, butchers, grocers.
- Germans also contributed to American culture with the introduction of institutions like Gymnasiums and Kindergarten.
- A small minority of the German immigrants were Jewish
- Free African Americans in the North faced much discrimination. Any had trouble finding jobs
- Despite these obstacles, many African Americans achieved notable success
- Free African Americans in the South were mostly descended from slaves. Slave owners did not like free African Americans living in the South, fearing it would set a bad example. May restrictions were placed on them in an effort to get them to move out of the South
- The lives of slaves in the South were determined by a set of strict slave codes and the practices of individual slave owners
- Slave codes were enacted to prevent slaves from running away or trying to rebel
- Slave codes prevented slaves from traveling and even made it a criminal offense to read and write
- Some of the slave codes were also meant to protect the slaves
- The slave codes were supposed to protect the slaves from cases of extreme abuse
- All slaves were expected to work all day long
- Social reform is an organized attempt to improve any imperfections in society
- In the 1800s a Second Great Awakening swept the nation. Preachers held revivals and taught that individuals could save their souls by their own actions. The Second Great Awakening helped ignite the reform movements. It also heightened class and regional differences.
- There were reforms in Prison, which led to better care of prisoners and the separation of Men and women’s prisons
- There was also a call for better care of the disabled allowing for the opening of schools for the deaf and blind.
- There were reforms in prisons, mental institutions, education, slavery, etc.
- The Temperance movement was established to bring an end to the consumption of alcohol.
- They believed that alcohol resulted in broken homes, dysfunctional families, child abuse and poverty.
- Most members of the Temperance movement were women
- Some critics of the Temperance movement countered with the argument that not all people abuse alcohol, and the banning of it would itself cause a loss of jobs and probably result in violence
Reforms in Education
- In the early 1800s, there were very few public schools and most teachers were not trained
- Horace Mann became head of the Massachusetts board of education and demanded more money for schools
- Mann got legislators to bring in qualified teachers and raise the salary.
- The school year was extended, also
- Many states quickly followed Massachusetts’ example
- Some attempts were made at opening schools for African Americans, but these attempts were often met with hostility.
- Schools and teachers could also be targeted for attacks if they attempted to educate African Americans
- Schools were also opened for children with disabilities
- Labor reform movements were aimed at creating safer working conditions for workers
- These movements also sought to raise minimum age laws, reduce child labor and helped give rise to labor unions.
- In 1807, Congress banned the importation of slaves into the United States from Africa.
- The call for complete abolition of slavery began to grow. (mostly in the North)
- The American Colonization Society was established with the goal of ending slavery and starting a colony in Africa for freed slaves. The society founded the nation of Liberia in 1822. Most free African Americans chose not to leave their homes in the United States.
- A growing number of Abolitionists wanted to end slavery completely in the United States.
- Fredrick Douglass was the best known African American abolitionist
- Douglass was a former slave who had escaped to his freedom in the North
- He began to lecture across the United States on the evils of slavery
- He spoke and wrote about his early life as a slave
- He also published an anti slavery newspaper called the North Star
- William Lloyd Garrison was an outspoken abolitionist who published the most influential newspaper called The Liberator.
- Garrison also founded the Anti-Slavery Society
Equal Rights for Women
- Women had few political rights in the early 1800s
- Lucretia Mott (a Quaker) sought to gain equal treatment for women along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton
- Sojourner Truth was a speaker on behalf of BOTH women’s rights AND abolitionism.
- Sojourner Truth’s real name was Isabella Baumfree. She escaped slavery with her daughter and took up the cause for abolishment of slavery and equal rights for women.
Seneca Falls Convention
- Stanton and Mott had wanted to join the Anti-Slavery movement, but women were not allowed to take an active role at the Anti-Slavery Convention
- They decided then to take up the case for women’s rights
- They organized the Seneca Falls Convention
- At the Seneca Falls Convention, they approved the Declaration of Sentiments which stated that women and men were equal
- They wanted equality at work and the right to vote
- This Convention marked the beginning of the Women’s Rights Movement
- Susan B Anthony was a tireless speaker on behalf of the Women’s Rights movement as well as a champion for women’s suffrage
American Writers and Painters
- By the mid 1800s American artists began to develop their own style of painting
- The Hudson River School Artists were a group of painters who focused on landscape paintings mainly of the Hudson River Valley
- Artists became renowned such as Thomas Cole who painted vivid landscapes of New York
- John James Audubon was a French American ornithologist, naturalist and painter. He painted very detailed depictions of birds in their natural habitats.
- His most famous work was “The Birds of North America”.
- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was a favorite poet of Americans.
- He wrote such famous poems as “Paul Revere’s Ride” and “Song of Hiawatha”
- Walt Whitman, a transcendentalist author, published only one book called “Leaves of Grass”
- He added to it over a period of 27 years
- Walt Whitman was called the Father of American Free Verse
- Emily Dickinson saw only even of her poems published in her lifetime
- Today she is considered one of the Nation’s greatest poets
- Mark Twain’s “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” was widely read and had great influence.
- Transcendentalists were writers who valued emotion over reason.
- They felt that people should transcend or go beyond human reason
- Their focus was nature
- Ralph Waldo Emerson was one of the leading Transcendentalists who stressed the importance of individualism
- Henry David Thoreau believed that growing industry was ruining the Nation
- In his best known work titled Walden he describes living alone in the woods
- Thoreau also believed in civil disobedience in which he felt that people should have the right to disobey a law they feel is unjust
- He practiced this when he refused to pay his taxes in protest to the Mexican War
Instructional Focus Document Notes
Grade 8/Social Studies
UNIT: 11 TITLE: Sectionalism and Civil War
Part 1: Sectionalism
Three Sectional Leaders
- While conflict between political parties declined, disputes between different sections of the nation sharpened.
- In Congress, three men would play major roles in politics for the next 30 years. Each of the three represented one of the three different regions of the country
John C. Calhoun spoke for the South
- He supported the War of 1812
- He was a firm defender of Slavery. Like many Southerners he saw slavery as necessary for labor, and therefore an economic issue
- He opposed any policy that would strengthen the federal government
- He claimed that state governments should have the right to reject federal laws
Daniel Webster spoke for the North
- He opposed the War of 1812
- Wanted the federal government to take a larger role in building the nation’s economy
- He opposed slavery and thought it was evil
Henry Clay spoke for the West
- Was the leader of the War hawks and therefore supported the War of 1812
- Favored a more active role for the federal government in promoting the country’s growth
The country had become divided with Sectionalism.
Sectionalism is loyalty to One’s State or local region, rather than to the nation.
Sectionalism had led to early conflict in the United States with the issue of States Rights and the Nullification Crisis.
- Both the North and the South had a balance in Congress with 11 free states and 11 slave states
- Missouri wanted to be admitted into the United States as a slave state which would upset the balance
- Henry Clay suggested admitting Missouri as slave state, but at the same time, admit the territory of Maine as a free state
- This would keep the balance in Congress and it became known as the Missouri Compromise
- Congress drew a line across Missouri’s southern border and prohibited slavery above the border
Slavery in the Territories
- Northerners did not want slavery to extend into any of the western territories and tried to get the Wilmot Proviso passed through Congress which would have banned slavery in all the territories, but it did not pass the Senate
- Bother Northerners and Southerners argued over the issue of slavery in the west
- Some moderates suggested extending the Missouri Compromise line all the way to the Pacific Ocean
- Others suggested that people living in the territories could vote for themselves whether or not to allow slavery
- A new political party called the Free Soil party was formed to keep slavery out of the West
- When California applied for statehood, there were 15 slave states and 15 free states.
- California wanted to be admitted as a free state and this would upset the balance
- Southerners feared that if California were to enter the United States as a free state, then all of the western territories would be admitted as free states and the South would be hopelessly outnumbered in Congress
- Some extremists even hinted that the South should consider secession as an option
The Great Compromiser
- Henry Clay had been nicknamed the Great Compromiser for working out numerous compromises to keep the North and the South happy
- Clay wanted to find a permanent solution or he feared the Nation could be torn apart
- Henry Clay helped reduce sectional conflict through legislation
Clay vs. Calhoun
- John C Calhoun refused to compromise on any issue.
- He insisted that slavery be allowed in the West and furthermore, runaway slaves that had escaped to the North should be returned
Compromise of 1850
- Henry Clay came up with the Compromise of 1850, but he had become ill and Stephen Douglas of Illinois helped push it through Congress
- The Compromise of 1850 had 5 parts
- 1. California would be admitted as a free state
- 2. The rest of the western territories would use popular sovereignty and decide for themselves whether to have slavery
- 3. The slave trade was outlawed in Washington D.C.
- 4. A strict fugitive slave law would be enforced
- 5. A border dispute between Texas and New Mexico was settled
Fugitive Slave Act
- The Fugitive Slave Act part of the Compromise required that all runaway slaves who had escaped to the North would be returned to slavery in the South
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
- In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe, a woman from New England wrote the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin which told the story of a slave’s brutal treatment at the hands of a slave owner
- The book was extremely popular in the North and helped to boost the Abolitionist Movement
- Southerners felt the book was unfair propaganda
- The book increased tension between Northerners and Southerners
- Stephen Douglas introduced a bill that would divide the Kansas-Nebraska territory into two territories : Kansas and Nebraska
- Stephen Douglas proposed that Popular Sovereignty be used to decide the slavery issue
- Both pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces flooded the Kansas territory with settlers hoping to cast their vote
- Both elected their own governments and violence soon erupted
- Kansas Became known as “Bleeding Kansas” as armed gangs from both camps clashed in numerous attacks across the Kansas territory
- John Brown led a gang of abolitionists. He said it was God’s will that he punish all slave holders. He murdered several pro-slavery people resulting in retaliations and more violence
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
- Dred Scott was enslaved to a slave owner who had moved to the free territory of Wisconsin
- After they moved back to Missouri, Scott’s owner had died. Lawyers for Scott argued that since Scott had lived in the free territory, for several years, he should be legally free
- In the case of Dred Scott vs. Sanford, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that since Scott was a slave (property) and therefore not a citizen, he could not file a case
- The Court further ruled that Congress did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any of the territories
- Congress responded by saying slavery should not exist anywhere in the United States
The Republican Party Emerges
- In 1854 in Michigan, a group of Free Soilers, Whigs, and former Democrats met to form a new political party that would take a stronger stance against the spread of slavery
- They formed the Republican Party
- Abraham Lincoln ran on the new Republican ticket for the office seat of Senator from Illinois
- Running for re-election for the same seat on the Democrat ticket was Stephen Douglas
- Lincoln challenged the very popular Stephen Douglas to a series of debates to be held across the state of Illinois
- People and Newspapers from all over came to these public debates
- Lincoln argued that slavery should not be allowed at all in the Western territories
- Douglas said that the issue of slavery in the Western territories should be decided by Popular Sovereignty
- Stephen Douglas barely won his re-election
- Lincoln, however, became well known across the country because he was very good at speaking to large groups of people and he delivered many memorable speeches
John Brown’s raid at Harpers Ferry
- The radical abolitionist John Brown plotted to raid a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry Virginia for weapons to be used in a slave revolt that he would lead
- Brown managed to capture the arsenal, but he himself was later captured by the federal army
John Brown’s Trial
- The trial of John Brown became a media event.
- Throughout the trial, John Brown carried himself with a calm demeanor and behaved with dignity even after he was sentenced to death
- John Brown quickly gained many admirers in the North and after his execution, he became a martyr
Part 2: Civil War (1861-1865)
Lincoln is Elected
- Lincoln was chosen by the Republican Party to run for President in the election of 1860
- The Democrats were split between Northern Democrats and Southern Democrats
- Stephen Douglas ran on the ticket for the Northern Democrats while John Breckinridge ran on the ticket for the Southern Democrats
- Southerners knew that if a Republican won, slavery would be finished in the West
- Lincoln’s name was even kept off the ballot in 10 Southern states
- The Northerners outnumbered the Southerners, however, and Lincoln won the Presidency
- Many Southerners now felt that the new President and Congress were against the interests of the South
- They felt that an abolitionist was now in the White House
- Southern states felt they had no choice left but to secede from the Union. On Dec. 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede. By February, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi also seceded
- Lincoln faced a very dangerous situation when he took office. He warned that no state had the right to leave the Union, calling it illegal. He stated that there would be NO civil war, however, unless the South started one
- …..“In YOUR hands my dissatisfied fellow countrymen and not in MINE is the momentous issue of civil war”……..
- Fort Sumter was a federal fort located within the borders of South Carolina.
- Since South Carolina was no longer a part of the United States, they felt the fort now belonged to them.
- They demanded that Fort Sumter surrender
- When Major Robert Anderson refused to surrender Ft. Sumter to South Carolina, the confederates fired upon the fort
- These were the first shots of the Civil War
Differences between the North and South
- 91% Factory production
- 71% Total population
- 71% Railroads
- 75% Farmland
- 4% Cotton production
- 189 million in bank deposits
- 56 million in gold
- Large navy and trading fleet
- Poor military leaders
- 9% Factory production
- 29% Total population
- 29% Railroads
- 25% Farmland
- 96% Cotton production
- 47 million in bank deposits
- 27 million in gold
- Small navy and trading fleet
- Strong military leaders
Civil War Leaders
- Jefferson Davis became the President of the Confederacy. Davis was widely respected as a leader, however, he often worried about small matters and spent much time arguing with advisors
- Lincoln at first had people worrying about his inexperience and abilities to be an effective leader, but he very quickly proved to be a strong leader and a good war planner. He gained the respect of his advisors
- Lincoln knew that the obvious choice for commander of the Union Army was Robert E. Lee
- Lee was considered by many to be the greatest military generals ever
- When Lincoln asked Lee to take command of the army of the Potomac (The main army of the United States), Lee declined
- Lee stated that he could not go against his home state of Virginia
Battle of Bull Run
- Many Northerners expected a quick and easy victory for the Union because they knew that the Union army greatly outnumbered the Confederate army
- Union troops strolled with confidence to meet the Confederate army at the small stream in Virginia known as Bull Run Creek. Many northern civilians accompanied the army hoping to see a great show.
- Commanding the Confederate army was General Thomas Jackson
- At first the sheer number of the Union troops appearing caused the Confederate army to panic and break up
- Spectators began cheering saying “The war is already over!”
- But Thomas Jackson did not move. He stood his ground like a stone wall earning him the nickname Stonewall Jackson
- The Confederate army rallied behind Jackson
- A bloody battle ensued and in the end, the Union army panicked and fled the field of battle
- Many spectators who had not been killed also fled alongside Union soldiers
- The Battle of Bull Run showed that the Civil War should be taken seriously
- It showed that the War would be long, costly and it indicated that there would be many casualties on both sides both military and civilian
Part 3: Civil War (1861-1865)
Early Years of the War
- Lincoln placed George McClellan to be Union commander after the disaster at Bull Run
- Because the Union had invaded Virginia, Robert E Lee offered his services to the Confederacy who promptly made him commander of the Confederate army
- The Union Army continued to meet defeat after defeat at the hands of the Confederate army.
- This was due largely to the fact that the Confederate army had excellent military leaders such as Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet, George Picket, Jeb Stuart and of course Robert E. Lee
- Union Generals such as McClellan preferred to use caution when dealing with the Confederate Army. They wanted to get better trained
- Most Union generals were scared of the Confederate generals especially Robert E Lee
The Virginia and the Monitor
- With a superior navy, the Union was able to set up a naval blockade of all the Southern ports preventing the Confederacy from trading with anyone.
- The Confederacy needed a ship that could break through the naval blockade
- Confederates too a Union ironclad named the Merrimack and renamed it the Virginia
- Iron plates were fitted all around the ship making it practically impervious to cannon fire.
- It was successful at breaking through the blockade and tore through traditional wooden war ships
- The Union responded with another ironclad ship named the Monitor
- It rested low in the water and had a unique rotating turret with twin cannons
- Both ships eventually clashed in battle off the coast of Virginia
- Neither ship was able to damage the other
- Eventually both ships withdrew from the battle ending in a draw
- This battle proved the effectiveness of the new metal steam powered war ships and it ushered in the age of the ironclads
Battles of the Civil War
- The Confederates still managed to defeat the Union forces time and time again at many battles including Chancellorsville and the worst Union defeat of the war: Fredericksburg. Plus many more
- Union generals were proving to be weak leaders
- Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside
- Burnside was replaced later by Joseph Hooker…who was also later replaced
- There were a few Union victories such as the battle of Shiloh and Antietam, but these victories came at a heavy cost of thousands of lives
- The Battle at Antietam was the bloodiest single day in the Civil War with over 23,000 casualties in just one day.
- In the middle of the war, Lincoln decided to issue the Emancipation Proclamation which freed all the slaves in the Confederate states.
- Slaves in the Union states would remain slaves
- Although Lincoln felt that slavery was wrong, he did not want to anger slave holding Union states that had remained loyal to the United States
- Lincoln did not want the Emancipation Proclamation to seem like a desperate act, so he waited until the Union had a few big victories before issuing it. (like Antietam)
African American Contributions
- Frederick Douglass helped persuade the Union to form an African American regiment.
- The Union army decided to form an all black regiment called the 54th Massachusetts. At first they were used only as labor, but the commander, Colonel Shaw worked to get them into battle
- The regiment proved their courage in battle and won many engagements
- William Carney, a soldier in the 54th, even won the Congressional Medal of Honor.
- On the attack at the Confederate Ft. Wagner, the 54th led the charge. They lost over half their number, but opened the doors for African American soldiers
- Ft. Wagner was never taken
- In the South, as the Union army pushed into the South, slaves were liberated and left the plantations to freedom
- Women on both sides played large roles in aiding the war effort. As men left for the battlefield, Women took over factories an businesses, plantations, etc.
- On both sides women acted as nurses tending to the wounded and the sick
- Like in wars from the past, such as the Revolution, some women also disguised themselves as men so that they could take part in battles
- On both sides MOST soldiers were under the age of 21. Many were mere teenagers
- These young boys became hardened by their experiences, sleeping on hard ground in all weather conditions and learning to face enemy fire and stand their ground
- New weaponry made the battlefield even more horrific.
- Cone shaped bullets replaced musket balls. These mini balls, as they were called, were far more accurate and deadly
- Rifled muskets fired shots that could go much farther and were much more accurate
- Cannon accuracy was significantly improved as well during the Civil War.
- Explosive shells were more deadly and precise than ever before
- During the Civil War, the Gatling Gun was invented and deployed to the battlefield.
- It was the worlds first machine gun and increased casualty rates immensely
- In most all the battles, one fourth to half of all the soldiers engaged perished
- Medical care was very crude and many wounded soldiers faced unheard of horrors in the hospital tents.
- Minor wounds often became infected and limbs usually were amputated
- Diseases such as malaria, dysentery, cholera, and influenza killed just as many soldiers as did bullets and cannons
Prisoners Of War
- Prisoners of War on both sides were treated inhumanly
- They experienced the worst the Civil war had to offer
- Many were neglected and starved to death
- As the war dragged on, public support dwindled. Many young men stopped volunteering for the army.
- Congress decided to enlist a draft which would require all able bodied males between the ages of 20 and 45 to serve in the army
- However if one could pay $300, then he could avoid the draft
- Many felt this was not fair, because only the wealthy could afford the $300 pay off
- As a result draft riots broke out in many cities across the North to protest the draft
The Tide Turns
- As the war stretched on, the South was beginning to suffer economically
- The South could not keep up with the North in factory production, which produced badly needed supplies
- The Northern naval blockade of Southern ports prevented the South from selling cotton, or trading with anyone
- Wile both sides were losing thousands of young boys every month, the Union had the population to replace its losses
- The south could not replace its losses so the Confederate army continued to shrink
- After years of bad leadership, the Union was finally getting strong military leaders such as Generals George Meade, William T. Sherman, Winfield Hancock, and Ulysses S. Grant
- Philip Bazaar was a Chilean immigrant who distinguished himself in the U.S. Navy during the assault on the Confederate Ft. Fisher.
- Lee came up with a plan to invade the North, lure the Union army out in the open and destroy it, thus bringing an end to the war
- He invaded Pennsylvania and began a march toward Washington D.C.
- A small detachment of the Confederate Army went into the town of Gettysburg looking for shoes when they encountered a Union detachment also in Gettysburg. They immediately began fighting and reinforcements gradually arrived until it was a full engagement between the Union Army (George Meade commanding )and the Confederate Army (Robert E Lee Commanding)
- The Confederate Army was able to drive the Union Army from the town, but the Union Army took a defensive position on excellent ground along Cemetery Ridge outside of the town
- Three days of savage fighting resulted as the Confederate army tried to dislodge the Union army from its position.
- The first attempt was at the southern flank at the battle of Little Round Top.
- The Union miraculously held off the Confederate attack
- Each attempt by the Confederate army failed to dislodge the Union position
- Lee decided on one last charge straight up the center of the Union lines. General Pickett was chosen to coordinate the attack
- Pickett coordinated a 15,000 strong attack force for over a mile straight at the Union Center. As Pickett’s charge advanced, they were under such intense cannon and gunfire that only a few thousand made it halfway
- The charge ended in absolute Confederate failure.
- This battle broke the invincible back of the Confederate army
- The Confederate Army was forced to retreat from Gettysburg. The Confederate invasion was turned back.
- More than 50,000 were killed or wounded at Gettysburg
- It was the turning point of the Civil War
- A ceremony was given to commemorate the Union soldiers who had died at Gettysburg. Lincoln attended the ceremony and delivered his speech now famously known as the Gettysburg Address. In his speech he reminded Americans that this country in a struggle
- He reminded Americans that this country was based on the principle that all men are created equal. He said that the Civil War was a test to see if a democratic nation could survive.
- He stated that … “A government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth”
- This contrasts sharply to the sentiments in Jefferson Davis’ inaugural address where he defends the institution of slavery and the sovereignty of the individual states.
- After Gettysburg, things went badly for the Confederacy
- Generals Grant and Sherman adopted a policy of “Total War”. This meant that nothing would be spared as their armies invaded the South
- Death and destruction followed them as they burned their way through the South eastward toward Richmond.
- This was Sherman’s March to the Sea
- As the Union Army pressed on through the South, they continued to meet heavy resistance and fight bloody battles with the remainders of the Confederate army
- Thousands upon thousands of Union soldiers were killed in these assaults, but they were continually replaced with new recruits.
- The Confederate army did not get replacements as their army continued to shrink
The Fall of Richmond
- The capital of the Confederacy, Richmond Virginia, was under siege and being bombarded.
- Lee’s army was forced to abandon the city, and the Union took the Confederate capital (after its near destruction)
Appomattox Court House
- Finally, faced with overwhelming odds, General Robert E. Lee decided to surrender the Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House.
- Lee met Grant for the first time to discuss terms of surrender
- Grants terms for surrender were considered to be quite generous and very simple
- All confederate soldiers were required to turn over their weapons, renounce loyalty to the Confederacy, and go home and be citizens of the United States once again
- On April 9, 1865, the Civil War came to an end
Civil War Ends
- The costs of the war were tremendous.
- Over 360,000 Union casualties
- Over 250,000 Confederate casualties
- No other war in history resulted in as many Americans dead
- The war resulted in freedom for all men